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Research Article |

Impact of Herzberg Two-Factor Theory on Teachers’ Job Satisfaction: An Implication to the Private Universities of Bangladesh

Author(s) : Md. Tota Miah1, Md. Jahid Hasan2

Publisher : FOREX Publication

Published : 25 January 2022

e-ISSN : 2347-4696

Page(s) : 1-5

When faced with less job autonomy, unjustified academic pressure, relentless responsibility, and a poor underfunded research culture pay deals year after year, the reasons why so many faculty members quit the profession so early to pursue other careers are no longer a mystery. Teaching may appear to be a much less stressful career than being a banker or a corporate employee from the outside. However, according to a recent poll, 46% of teachers experience high daily stress and insecurity in their career in the long run, revealing discontent in the classroom that was not expected. Academician’s Job satisfaction is one of the most studied organizational behavior variables, and it has been connected to a variety of psychological issues. Motivation, morale, and job satisfaction are frequently used interchangeably. Job satisfaction is defined as the association of a personal sense of accomplishment with one's work. Motivation, on the other hand, is a process that can lead to job satisfaction. Various scholars perceive this topic through different lenses and describe it differently. Job satisfaction is one of the most well discussed topics in the field of organizational behavior, with research beginning in the 1920s (Özgen and Yalçın, 2010). Job satisfaction is defined by Locke (1976) as a happy or good emotional state arising from an evaluation of one's occupation or work experiences. According to research, whereas employees who report high job satisfaction have positive feelings about their employment, those who report poor job satisfaction have negative feelings about their workplaces (Robbins and Judge, 2011). Job satisfaction has received a lot of attention from educational academics because of its favorable impact on achieving psychological adjustment, increasing productivity, and minimizing psychological stress associated to the workplace. (Al-Sheikh 1997) stated that when employees of a company are happy with their work, they are more productive, driven, and have a sense of belonging to the company. When job happiness is derived from the working environment rather than monetary gain, it increases. Because of the substantial association between job happiness and organizational behavior concerns such as commitment, absenteeism, turnover, efficiency, and productivity, educational researchers have long focused on teacher job satisfaction (DeNobile & McCormick, 2006). There are numerous motivational theories that can be used to explain employee behavior and attitudes. Content theory, for example, is founded on the premise that persons have unique wants that drive their behavior. Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory (1954), McClelland's (1961), Alderfer's (1969), and Herzberg's (1969) (1966). Herzberg's two-factor theory, commonly known as the motivational-hygiene hypothesis (Herzberg, Mausner, & Synderman, 1959), forms the foundation for this study. An examination of events in the lives of engineers and accountants led to the development of this theory.

The finding of this research reveal that the elements that contribute to job satisfaction and motivation differ from those that contribute to job unhappiness. Achievement, acknowledgment for achievement, the work itself, responsibility, and growth or advancement, according to them, are essential to the job's growth or motivational aspects. Company policy and administration, supervision, interpersonal interactions, working conditions, compensation, and status and security, on the other hand, are extrinsic to the job discontent prevention or hygiene elements.

According to the findings of a research of 1685 employees, motivational elements were the key reason of workplace satisfaction, whereas hygienic factors were the primary cause of job discontent (Herzberg 1968). The word "motivation" is derived from the Latin verb movere, which meaning "to move," as Vroom (1964) pointed out. Motivation is a set of internal impulses that push a person to succeed, which leads to job satisfaction. Motivation is important for teachers, according to Ruthankoon, R., and Ogunlana, S. O. (2003), because it leads to an increase in job involvement. He also recommended focusing more on the motivational factors that lead to a greater sense of accomplishment, autonomy, more challenging work situations, and more opportunities for professional development. His research concluded that the characteristics of Herzberg's two-factory theory may be applied to sophisticated nations and the entire field of human resources management. Tan, T. H., and Waheed, A. (2011) found that hygienic aspects are the most important motivators for job satisfaction among employees. The most important factor in inspiring employees is their working environment. They also discovered that employee satisfaction is affected by recognition, corporate policy, and salary structure. Many private institutions treat professors like corporate workers, which has a significant behavioral impact on them. According to a study by Ghazi, S. R., Shahzada, G., and Khan, M. S. (2013), the fulfillment of hygienic criteria leads to job satisfaction and motivation in university teachers, but it does not make employees satisfied or motivated. The researchers believe that university policies, supervisory relationships, pay, and job stability are more satisfying than incentive variables. There is a strong link between motivation and productivity, which indicates that monthly pay, interpersonal relationships, and work security are all important factors in job satisfaction (Bexheti, L., & Bexheti, A.) (2016).

Furthermore, the interaction between job motivators and hygienic factors has a direct influence on teacher job satisfaction. According to Cano, J., and Castillo, J. X. (2004), "work itself" is the most stimulating aspect for faculty because it allows professors job autonomy. Working conditions, on the other hand, were the least inspiring feature due to poor infrastructure, a small campus, and a lack of educational facilities. As a result, there is a clear link between the sense of organizational culture and job satisfaction among academic professionals at a university. Coworker relationships, supervisory support, and the work itself are the most important elements, followed by modest satisfaction with promotion chances. Academic professionals, on the other hand, were unsatisfied with their pay (Chipunza, C., & Malo, B.) (2017). Sharma, D. (2017) found that job satisfaction is an important factor in ensuring quality education because educators in universities are only satisfied when they are given the opportunity to grow and administer, followed by "Monetary Growth," "Cleanliness and Infrastructure," "Possibility of Turnover," Coordination, and Cooperation. The main goal of this research is to discover the characteristics that lead to high job satisfaction and low job satisfaction among private university faculty members. Understanding how this theory can be used to educational institutions will help Human Resources and upper management figure out how to encourage teachers.

The primary aim of this research has set to identify the reasons for faculty’s job satisfaction level and to locate the responsible factors of private universities in Bangladesh. Other objectives are as followed:

I. To assess the applicability of Herzberg’s theory to the university teachers.

II. To investigate and to determine the impact and level of hygiene and motivational factors on job satisfaction.

III. To find out the job satisfaction and motivational level of university teachers in Bangladesh.

IV. To prescribe the recommendation to the practitioners about the findings.

3.1 Research Design

This study is descriptive and survey type. To reach our target, the researcher has gathered the information requesting the respondents to fill up the survey questionnaire through a physical visit in universities. In this research, a structured questionnaire has been developed considering Herzberg two factor theory of motivations through 21 statements by means of 5 point Likert scale (where1= strongly disagree, 2= Disagree, 3=Neutral, 4= Agree and 5= Strongly agree) to obtain and to measure two factor theory.

3.2 Population and Sample

Teachers from all the faculties working in Varendra University and North Bengal International University in the Rajshahi City Corporation constitute the population of the study. Random sampling method has been operated.

3.3 Instrumentation

Descriptive statistics like frequency distribution, percentile, mean and standard deviation has been used to determine the central tendency of the data and the trends of the variables. Besides conducting a descriptive analysis of primary data the researchers will also perform Pearson correlations to determine co-relation between overall job satisfaction and other factors. Finally, a multiple regression analysis will be carried out to examine which of the extracted factors have the strongest impact on faculties’ job satisfaction at the northern part of Bangladesh. All figures will be obtained and analyzed using the software SPSS version 22 to come at a conclusion and implications.

The collected data have been analyzed through SPSS- 22. Mean and Standard Deviation are used to measure the job satisfaction and motivation level of university teachers on Hygiene and Motivator factors of Herzberg’s two factor theory. The researcher has used the reliability test and descriptive statistics including frequency analysis, mean and standard deviations which depict the result of 92 respondents.

Table 1. Reliability Test: Calculated value of reliability statistics through SPSS 20

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha

No. Of Respondents

 

.863

92


Table 2. Descriptive Statistics: Analysis of Demographic Information by SPSS 20 version

Measures

Items

Frequency

%

 

Age

Less than 30 years

30 to 40 years

40 to 50 years

50 to 60 years

More than 60 years

64

24

2

1

1

70

26

2

1

1

 

Gender

Male

Female

46

46

50

50

 

Current position

Teaching Assistant

Lecturer

Assistant professor

Associate Professor

Professor

27

43

20

1

 1

29

47

22

1

 1

 

Educational Qualifications

Bachelor’s degree

Master’s degree

Doctoral degree

Other professional degree

12

 74

6

0

13

80

7

0

 

 

Year of experiences

Less than 1 year

1 to 5 years

6 to 10 years

11 to 15 years

16 years and above

25

56

8

1

2

27

61

8

1

2

 

Marital status

Married

Unmarried

Divorced

51

40

1

46

55

1

 

Monthly Income

Below BDT 30,000

BDT 30,000 to 40,000

BDT 40,000 to 50,000

BDT 50,000 to 60,000

More than BDT 60,000

11

 56

 5

 16

 4

 

12

 61

 5

17

 4

 


Table 3. Result of Mean and Standard Deviation: Calculated figure of Mean and Standard Deviation.

Descriptive Statistics

 

 N

 Min.

 Max.

 Mean

  Std. Deviation

 

University Policy and Administration

 

92

1.00

5.00

3.5870

.85680

 

Interpersonal Relationships

 

92

1.50

5.00

3.5380

.78877

 

Working Conditions

 

92

1.00

5.00

2.7283

.87835

 

Research Opportunity

 

92

1.00

5.00

2.8859

.94956

 

Job Security

 

92

1.00

5.00

3.1250

.89450

 

Salary and Fringe Benefits

 

92

1.00

5.00

3.0380

.98403

 

Achievement

 

92

1.00

5.00

3.3207

.93932

 

Recognition

 

92

1.00

5.00

3.2500

.71675

 

Work itself

 

92

1.00

5.00

3.2029

.83856

 

Advancement and Growth

 

92

2.00

5.00

3.5815

.71205

 

Valid N (list wise)

 

92

 

 

 

 


The measurement scales were put through a reliability test to ensure that they were consistent and accurate. The goal of this test is to generate a number between 0 and 1. There are several reports on acceptable alpha values ranging from.70 to.90, which Cronbach characterizes as high internal consistency of all variables (1951). Table 1 show that the current score of this study is found.863 which lies between the range and can be averred that the research is acceptable and the questionnaire is reliable. On the other hand, Figure 2 depicts the profile of respondents in terms of age, gender, current status, educational qualifications, year of experiences and monthly income. Of the 92 respondents, 64 (70%) were less than 30 years of age and 24 (26%) were between 30 to 40 age. In terms of gender, 46 were men (50%) and the remaining were women (50%). In terms of educational qualifications, most of the respondents have master degree (80%). As for monthly income, most of the respondents earned between BDT 30,000 to BDT 40,000. In case of experiences of the faculties, it lies between 1 to 5 years in highest number (61%). To sum up, this scenario tells us that the university has lack of experienced teachers as well as high professional expertise. Besides, Table-3 presents the mean and standard deviation of the variables. Established on a five-point Likert scale with responses ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5) provided the highest mean score found for “University Policy and Administration, Advancement and growth opportunities” (M = 3.5870, 3.5815 and S.D=.85680, .71205, respectively) that stands the university rules and policies, management are good in practice and take into exercise all-around the campus with strict discipline. The lowest mean score found for “physical working conditions” and “Research Opportunities” which is M= 2.7283 and M= 2.8859 that clearly indicate the infrastructural facilities like the inadequacy of classrooms, modern library, seminar rooms and conference room. There is a high tendency among teachers where dissatisfaction tendency seems to high is big campus. Except these, academicians have neutral attitudes in case of job security, salary and fringe benefits but have downward behavior towards the dissatisfaction.

Herzberg two factor theory has widely used in understanding whether the teachers are satisfied or not to different educational institutions. The upshot of this theory plays a significant role especially the hygiene factors cannot be neglected since they are causing job dissatisfaction and has an effect on teacher’s job performance. Hence, whatever the type of organization both the hygiene and motivation factors can contribute to the university effectiveness and can be assessed the carrying into action of instructors on a periodical basis. The researcher strongly believes that in today’s age, teachers should give their job autonomy, a global working environment and a favorable research environment by ensuring their quality of working life. Ultimately, the university cannot progress in the age of 4th industrial revolution unless the teachers are satisfied with their job as they are the nation’s builder.

The researcher would like to express the gratitude to the Honorable Pro-Vice Chancellor, Prof. Dr. Rashidul Haque, and Director of the Center for Interdisciplinary Research (CIR), VU for a demanding research initiative and for his guidance for the young teachers. We would like to also show our vivid love to the Management of this university for the research grant to encourage and boost up our career path. As a whole, the authors, including the research assistant who helps immensely to make this study successful?

Md. Tota Miah, Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, Varendra University, Bangladesh ; Email: tota@vu.edu.bd

Md. Jahid Hasan, Undergraduate Student, Department of Business Administration, Varendra University, Bangladeshp

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Md. Tota Miah and Md. Jahid Hasan (2022), Impact of Herzberg Two-Factor Theory on Teachers’ Job Satisfaction: An Implication to the Private Universities of Bangladesh. IJBMR 10(1), 1-5. DOI: 10.37391/IJBMR.100101.