Published Vol. 10 No. 2

Volume 10, Issue 2

Disciplinary Guarantees for the Public Employee in the Saudi Law

The Saudi law has granted the administration numerous disciplinary powers against the public employee in the area of its disciplinary responsibility; however, in light of these disciplinary and punitive powers of the administration, the public employee must be protected from any tyranny, abuse, injustice, or bargaining that may be exercised against him by some of the administration's people. As a result, these protections shield public employees from the administration's tyranny, persecution, and arbitrariness. Thus, the purpose of this research is to uncover the disciplinary guarantees for public employees in the Saudi law, as well as their sufficiency in protecting the public employee and guaranteeing that the administration does not use them as a means of tyranny or arbitrariness. The study subject concerned the adequacy of these guarantees in the Saudi legislation, and the significance of the research lay in determining the adequacy of these guarantees in order to achieve protection for public employees.

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Liquidity Shocks and The Bank Lending Channel: Evidence from Lower-Middle Income Economies

This paper examines the impacts of central banks’ liquidity injections on commercial banks’ credit supply in thirty-two lower-middle income economies over the period 1990 until 2020. We use a SVAR panel model to analyze the dynamic interactions between the central bank balance sheet policy, bank liquidity, and bank lending. The results show that liquidity injections have a non-significant impact on the credit to the private sector and a persistent positive impact on banks’ liquid reserves. These results confirm the inefficiency of the bank lending channel in transmitting the central bank balance sheet monetary policy to the real economy in the considered LMIC’s.

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